It also shows a reader or examiner the extent of the research that exists to support your work and allows them to consult it themselves. Different referencing methods The first thing to be aware of is that there are several different accepted referencing methods , all of which have slight variations in format. This often causes a great deal of confusion, but the most important thing is to be consistent.
You may well find that a specific referencing system is prescribed for a piece of work, but if not just make sure that whichever form you choose, you are consistent in using it throughout and keeping all your references uniform in format.
Once you have decided how to reference, stick with that system throughout your essay. Oxford and Harvard referencing — what's the difference? Two of the most well-known and commonly used referencing methods are Oxford and Harvard referencing. These are the systems you are most likely to be asked to use for an essay or thesis and also the most widely recognised, so it is advisable to use one of these if you are choosing your own reference system.
Page title. When no author is listed, use the following structure: Website name, Year published. Example: Messer, L. Include the url at the end of the citation with the date it was accessed in brackets.
Use the following structure: Last name, First initial. Zusack, M. The Book Thief. Robin, J. A handbook for professional learning: research, resources, and strategies for implementation.
Harvard Reference List Citations for Archive Material Archival materials are information sources that are used to provide evidence of past events. Archival materials are generally collected and housed by organizations, such as universities, libraries, repositories, or historical societies. Examples can include manuscripts, letters, diaries, or any other artifact that the organization decides to collect and house.
The structure for archival materials includes: Last name, First initial. Title of the material. Examples: Pearson, J. Letter to James Martin. Marshall, S. Events Along the Canal. If you need clarification, Staffordshire University has additional information. Year created. Example: Gilbert, S. George Washington. Jensen, L. Faces in the Night. Harvard Reference List Citations for Blogs Blogs are regularly updated webpages that are generally run by an individual. When citing a blog post, use the following format: Last name, First initial.
Post title. Example: Cohen, M. Harvard Reference List Citations for Broadcasts To cite a radio or tv broadcast, use the following structure: Series title, Year published. Examples: Modern Family, The Preston and Steve Morning Show Harvard Reference List Citations for Conference Proceedings Conference proceedings are academic papers or presentations that are created or used for the purpose of a meeting or conference.
Use the following structure to cite a conference proceeding: If published online: Last name, First initial. Conference Year. Title of Paper or Proceedings. In: Name or Title of Conference. If not published online: Last name, First initial. City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages. Examples: Palmer, L.
Advocating for Your Tech Program. In: National Conference for Technology Teachers. Fox, R. Technological Advances in Banking. Hartford: AFA, p.
Example: Young v. United Parcel Service, Inc. Entry title. In: Dictionary Title, Edition. Inductive data analysis is a search for patterns of meaningful data so the general statements about phenomena under investigation can be made Hatch , p.
Note: Place a quotation of 30 or more words in your work as a free standing block. These quotes are usually indented eg. Do not enclose the quote in quotation marks. Reference lists, at the end of your paper, are made like this arrange your list alphabetically by author. Hatch, JA , Doing qualitative research in education settings. An introduction to sociology [online].
Cambridge: Polity. Byrne, D. How music works. Edinburgh: Canongate. Dooley, D. Nursing ethics: Irish cases and concerns.
OR Corporate Author. If you are using a citation for a second time you do not need to include it twice in the reference list Drury Journal, [online] Volume Issue , pages. The Book Thief. Archival materials are generally collected and housed by organizations, such as universities, libraries, repositories, or historical societies. You may well find that a specific referencing system is prescribed for a piece of work, but if not just make sure that whichever form you choose, you are consistent in using it throughout and keeping all your references uniform in format.
Year published. Need more example reference of Harvard style. Example: Brown, D. Entry title. Nursing ethics: Irish cases and concerns.
Year created. Yeshiva University.
Chapter title. Philosophy Today, 59 2 , pp. Year of Interview. Example: Cohen, M. Note: Place a quotation of 30 or more words in your work as a free standing block. It is important to reference the sources you use for essays and reports, so that the reader can follow your arguments and check your sources.
ResearchReady Jr. Management accounting for business. In: Webstin Dictionary, 8th ed. When citing a dictionary entry found online, use the following structure: Last name, First initial. If the name of the organization is used in the text, place only the year in parentheses. New York Times, [online] p.
Example: Espanol. Need help? Structure: Last name, First initial. Andover: Cengage Learning.
City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages. New York: Little, Brown.
There are myriad possible tiny variants — for example in instances when a book has more than one author — so it is advisable to consult a guide or your editor or supervisor for clarification. Page title.
Recording title. Examples: Jackson, M. City: Publisher, Page s. In: Dictionary Title, Edition. Title of Paper or Proceedings. This simple guide helps to explain how to reference an essay or dissertation in either style.
Boston: Cengage Learning, pp.