Agri-footprint Comprehensive Environmental Data Archive CEDA  Calculations for impact can then be done by hand, but it is more usual to streamline the process by using software. This can range from a simple spreadsheet, where the user enters the data manually to a fully automated program, where the user is not aware of the source data.
For example, trees produce paper, which can be recycled into low-energy production cellulose fiberised paper insulation , then used as an energy-saving device in the ceiling of a home for 40 years, saving 2, times the fossil-fuel energy used in its production. After 40 years the cellulose fibers are replaced and the old fibers are disposed of, possibly incinerated.
All inputs and outputs are considered for all the phases of the life cycle. The use phase and disposal phase of the product are omitted in this case. Cradle-to-gate assessments are sometimes the basis for environmental product declarations EPD termed business-to-business EPDs. This allows the LCA to collect all of the impacts leading up to resources being purchased by the facility. They can then add the steps involved in their transport to plant and manufacture process to more easily produce their own cradle-to-gate values for their products.
It is a method used to minimize the environmental impact of products by employing sustainable production, operation, and disposal practices and aims to incorporate social responsibility into product development. Various methods, such as the avoided burden approach have been proposed to deal with the issues involved. Gate-to-gate modules may also later be linked in their appropriate production chain to form a complete cradle-to-gate evaluation.
The analysis is often broken down into stages entitled "well-to-station", or "well-to-tank", and "station-to-wheel" or "tank-to-wheel", or "plug-to-wheel". The first stage, which incorporates the feedstock or fuel production and processing and fuel delivery or energy transmission, and is called the "upstream" stage, while the stage that deals with vehicle operation itself is sometimes called the "downstream" stage.
The well-to-wheel analysis is commonly used to assess total energy consumption, or the energy conversion efficiency and emissions impact of marine vessels , aircraft and motor vehicles , including their carbon footprint , and the fuels used in each of these transport modes. The well-to-wheel variant has a significant input on a model developed by the Argonne National Laboratory.
The model evaluates the impacts of fuel use using a well-to-wheel evaluation while a traditional cradle-to-grave approach is used to determine the impacts from the vehicle itself. The model reports energy use, greenhouse gas emissions , and six additional pollutants: volatile organic compounds VOCs , carbon monoxide CO , nitrogen oxide NOx , particulate matter with size smaller than 10 micrometre PM10 , particulate matter with size smaller than 2.
Additionally the translation of economic quantities into environmental impacts is not validated. It was designed to provide a guide to wise management of human activities by understanding the direct and indirect impacts on ecological resources and surrounding ecosystems.
Developed by Ohio State University Center for resilience, Eco-LCA is a methodology that quantitatively takes into account regulating and supporting services during the life cycle of economic goods and products. In this approach services are categorized in four main groups: supporting, regulating, provisioning and cultural services.
This exergetic material input per unit of service EMIPS has been elaborated for transport technology. The art of modeling is, therefore, to determine just how far to extend the boundaries without creating an unnecessarily cumbersome global model. The difficulties associated with marginal costing discussed in the section on energy are also related to boundary effects. Problems of this type would largely be overcome by developing the models in a linear-programming framework, such as that adopted by Clifford et al.
This very innovative work, although only directed at demand and supply of waste paper, has gone largely unnoticed. Some of the reluctance on the part of companies to provide such information may be because much of it is basic economic process data, which have a certain business intelligence value.
Recently, however, awareness of the potential power of environmental issues in market control has also been growing. Thus, individual companies are tempted to use legislation or public perceptions to gain commercial advantage. Perhaps more importantly, individual states have realized that so-called environmental legislation can provide powerful and seemingly innocent nontariff trade barriers.
This environment encourages looking at available data and closely reviewing LCA or impact-analysis reports. Getting firms to provide sufficient, accurate data will require either legislated mandates or strict neutrality on the part of the modeler. Brown, R. Shiel, and M. Carbon dynamics of land use in Great Britain. Alban, D. Carbon storage in lake states aspen ecosystems. Canadian Journal of Forest Research Assies, J.
Australian Industry Commission. Recycling in Australia, Volumes 1 and 2. Canberra: Australian Government Publication Service. Boustead, I. Energy and packaging. Chicester: Ellis. Clifford, J. Laughton, T. McRoberts, and P. LP modeling in the paper industry as an aid to recycling decisions. Conservation and Recycling 2 2 Dewar, R. A model of carbon storage in forests and forest products.
Tree Physiology Criteria document for ecolabeling of copying paper. Fecker, I. How to calculate an ecological balance? Report No. Modeling age distribution and physical characteristics of waste paper. Grant, R. Hamm, U. The CO2 balance sheet—How is it affected by the German pulp and paper industry? Das Papier A.
Harmon, M. Ferrell, and J. Effects on carbon storage of conversion of old-growth forests to young forests. Science Jones, D.
.Some papers have focused on energy life cycle,    while others have focused on carbon dioxide CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Nevertheless, the literature seems to indicate that factors such as rotation times and other silviculture practices can affect this assumption. The first assumption appears to be consistent with much of the literature, if long-term balance is considered. The potential ''green" advantages of recycle credits have, however, been included in business discussions within Australian and New Zealand paper companies, but no formal analysis has been published. All inputs and outputs are considered for all the phases of the life cycle. Effects on carbon storage of conversion of old-growth forests to young forests. Criteria document for ecolabeling of copying paper. Australian Industry Commission.
.Canberra: Australian Government Publication Service. Tree Physiology Comparative life-cycle analysis is often used to determine a better process or product to use. See particularly, Adger et al. The typical case is where legislation is introduced that, although appearing to encourage environmentally appropriate activities locally, actually causes severe problems on a more global scale. Dewar, R. Problems of this type would largely be overcome by developing the models in a linear-programming framework, such as that adopted by Clifford et al. Net energy content is the energy content of the product minus energy input used during extraction and conversion , directly or indirectly. Alban, D. According to the first law of thermodynamics , all energy inputs should be accounted with equal weight, whereas by the second law diverse energy forms should be accounted by different values. Recycling can be seen as waste processing of the original product or as raw material processing for the secondary product. LP modeling in the paper industry as an aid to recycling decisions. The accuracy and availability of data can also contribute to inaccuracy. Comparative life-cycle analysis is often used to determine a better process or product to use.
The difficulties associated with marginal costing discussed in the section on energy are also related to boundary effects. Problems of this type would largely be overcome by developing the models in a linear-programming framework, such as that adopted by Clifford et al.
CO2, carbon dioxide.
Boustead, I. The major issue here is whether it is legitimate to consider some energy types to be superior to others. Once again, the forester is best qualified to quantify management policies that are conducive to maintenance of species diversity. A recent study comparing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from landfills without energy recovery against incineration with energy recovery found incineration to be superior in all cases except for when landfill gas is recovered for electricity production. For example, trees produce paper, which can be recycled into low-energy production cellulose fiberised paper insulation , then used as an energy-saving device in the ceiling of a home for 40 years, saving 2, times the fossil-fuel energy used in its production. One recommendation is for a allocation based on economic value Assies,
Fecker, I. Energy and packaging. An issue related to sustainability that has not been addressed in LCA studies has been the modeling of diversity over the life cycle. For example, trees produce paper, which can be recycled into low-energy production cellulose fiberised paper insulation , then used as an energy-saving device in the ceiling of a home for 40 years, saving 2, times the fossil-fuel energy used in its production. This situation relates directly to the boundaries of the problem—a topic referred to later in this paper.