When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.
APA style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the author-date system. There are additional rules for citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers. Citing an Author or Authors A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses.
Research by Wegener and Petty supports Kernis et al. Thomas, H. University of Colorado, Boulder. Citing Web Pages In Text Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. If the author is not known, use the title and the date as the in-text citation for long titles just use the first few words. Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list.
For sources with no date use n. Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages. Offering a citation gives your readers and other scholars access to your information sources if they wish to follow-up, or find more information on your topic. Why should I cite my sources? To demonstrate you have considered others' research To direct readers to additional information To establish credibility as a careful researcher To show professional honesty and courtesy To avoid issues with plagiarism What about common knowledge?
APA American Psychological Association is the style the formatting style most used to cite sources within the social sciences and in several other academic disciplines. In research papers, in-text citations are most commonly used in the Introduction and Results sections. This resource provides detailed guidelines for citing sources in your paper and includes examples of in-text citation for reference by research authors. When referring to external work or referencing an entire work but not directly quoting the material, you only need to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your citation.
The results of the first enzyme study Chen et al. If you have referred to the author of the work in the sentence or earlier in the paragraph, you only need to include the year of publication in the citation.
If more than one place of publication is listed give the publisher's home office. Use this checklist to be sure you haven't missed any information needed for APA style. Citing an Author or Authors A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses each time you cite the work. Why should I cite my sources?
When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the abbreviation "para. This tendency could be attributed to either a misunderstanding of correct methodology or to a feeling of freedom to explore different approaches that the researchers have yet to employ.
This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Harris et al. New researchers tend to use more diverse methodologies Khan, , p. References Derwing, T.
Note: When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Common knowledge can vary between subject fields, so think about your audience. APA guidelines encourage this inclusion but do not require it. Author's name part of narrative: Gass and Varonis found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
Johnson argued that Italicize the titles of works: books, audiovisual material, internet documents and newspapers, and the title and volume number of journals and magazines.
When giving information that reflects the results or implications of previous work, place the citation author and publication date at the end of the sentence. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. Klinge and Rogers found that mirroring is instrumental in developments of performative gender roles. Sources Without Page Numbers When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission.