You should say whether they are economic analysts, artists, physicists, etc. If you do not know anything about the author, and cannot find any information, it is best to say where you found the source and why you believe it is credible and worth citing. For example, In an essay presented at an Asian Studies conference held at Duke University, Sheldon Geron analyzes the relation of state, labor-unions, and small businesses in Japan between s and s.
If you have already introduced the author and work from which you are citing, and you are obviously referring to the same work, you probably don't need to mention them again. However, if you have cited other sources and then go back to one you had cited earlier, it is a good idea to mention at least the author's name again and the work if you have referred to more than one by this author to avoid confusion.
Quoting Material What is Quoting? Taking the exact words from an original source is called quoting. You should quote material when you believe the way the original author expresses an idea is the most effective means of communicating the point you want to make.
If you want to borrow an idea from an author, but do not need his or her exact words, you should try paraphrasing instead of quoting. How Often Should I Quote?
Most of the time, paraphrasing and summarizing your sources is sufficient but remember that you still have to cite them! Most of the time, you can just identify a source and quote from it, as in the first example above.
Sometimes, however, you will need to modify the words or format of the quotation in order to fit in your paper. Whenever you change the original words of your source, you must indicate that you have done so.
The selective effects of antibiotics in soils. In: Guerrero, R. Trends in microbial ecology: proceedings of the sixth International symposium on microbial ecology, Barcelona, September, Spanish Society for Microbiology, Barcelona, pp. Last name s , initial s of the chapter author s NB! Chapter title. Book title : subtitle.
Publisher, place of publication, chapter pages. Web page or web site Examples: Little, J. How to read a scientific paper. Accessed August 24, Emissions Karolinska institutet. Evaluating information. Accessed March 16 Publication or last updated date. Accession date. The only rule governing formatting is the rule of consistency.
How to reference using footnotes or endnotes Some academic disciplines prefer to use footnotes notes at the foot of the page or endnotes notes at the end of the work to reference their writing. Although this method differs in style from the 'author, date' system, its purpose - to acknowledge the source of ideas, data or quotations without undue interruption to the flow of the writing - is the same.
Footnote or endnote markers, usually a sequential series of numbers either in brackets or slightly above the line of writing or printing superscript , are placed at the appropriate point in the text. This is normally where you would insert the author and date if you were using the 'author, date' system described above.
Employers are not just looking for high academic achievement and have identified competencies that distinguish the high performers from the average graduate. Rules for the formatting of the detailed references follow the same principles as for the reference lists for the 'author, date' system. Moore, K. Kelsall, R. The reference to 'p. If the same source needs to be referred to several times, on second or subsequent occasions, a shortened reference may be used. Studies of women's employment patterns have demonstrated the relationship between marital status and employment sector.
Kelsall et al. In this example, the footnote refers the reader to the full reference to be found in footnote 2. In some academic disciplines, footnotes and endnotes are not only used for references, but also to contain elaborations or explanations of points made in the main text. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Research by Berndt a illustrated that Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication.
Do not include personal communication in the reference list. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style personal communication, November 3, Citing Indirect Sources If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses.
Johnson argued that If you are trying to publish a paper in a specific journal, you will be required to follow the format of that journal.
Some journals,e. That system will not be presented here, but you should expect to encounter it in your reading of the literature.
A complete listing of citation formats for published materials may be found in Huth et al Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech.
Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23 4 , Thomas, H. University of Colorado, Boulder. Citing Web Pages In Text Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known.
You may also wish to refer to other types of publications, including PhD dissertations, translated works, newspaper articles, dictionary or encyclopaedia entries or legal or historical texts. In: Gray, J.
DOI number. Read the course syllabus carefully--if citation style is not specified in the syllabus, ask your instructor before investing time and effort in the formatting of your notes and bibliography.
Journal articles Journal articles must also include: the name and volume number of the journal; the first and last page numbers of the article. Maps from Google Earth: Google Earth version if applicable. Book references The simplest format, for a book reference, is given first; it is the full reference for one of the works quoted in the examples above. Because these tools are published by different publishing companies and citation style is not standardized, the same work may be cited slightly differently in one index or bibliography than in another, as these two examples illustrate: A foster care research agenda for the '90s. In some academic disciplines, footnotes and endnotes are not only used for references, but also to contain elaborations or explanations of points made in the main text.